Evelyn Waugh: Decline and Fall: Gibbon it ain’t but there’s plenty of monkeying around.

evelyn waugh

Bad hair day: It seems that Boris Johnson copped a lot more than just his political attitudes from the young Evelyn Waugh.

The title of Evelyn Waugh’s first novel echoes Gibbon, but there the similarity ends. Gibbon’s book was a long account of what happened to the Roman Empire after the death of Marcus Aurelius, right up until the fall of Constantinople. It put forth the whole story and attempted to draw attention to the significant patterns in the fabric of time.

Waugh’s book by contrast is the equivalent of a young fogey taking a look at the social fabric of his time (1920’s Britain) and scrawling “balls to all this” across it with a large permanent marker pen.   The novel is the ‘history’ of an unfortunate young mug at Oxford by the name of Paul Pennyfeather. One night he has the misfortune to encounter the Bollinger Club (the Bullingdon Club in other words) who true to form are on the piss and on the warpath. They debag Pennyfeather and chase him  around the Quad, resulting in his unfairly being sent down for lewd and immoral behaviour.

From here Pennyfeather’s life takes a variety of odd twists and turns. Yes there is a plot, but it’s fairly basic and more of an excuse to present a series of comic set-pieces. I could summarise it, but the book’s so short you could almost read it in less time than I could take to describe it.

I liked the book and I did laugh out loud in places. Ultimately it was an agreeable way of passing the time, but dare I say that’s about it for me. I recently watched an old BBC “Face to Face” interview with Waugh, and something he said about his books made me think most of Decline and Fall.

Interviewer: You say all that is good in the world comes from God; you don’t seem to find very much which is good in the modern world – you’ve seen it consistently as a decadent world, have you not?

Waugh:  But there’s good in a decadent world.

Interviewer: Yes, but your purpose in life is what? To castigate or to chronicle the decadent world? Do you see a purpose in your books – are you trying to scourge us into reform?

Waugh: Oh no, no, no, no, no. No, I’m just trying to write books.

Interviewer: Yes, but nonetheless no-one who is as intellectually coherent as you are can write books even just as finished polished objects without having a certain purpose in mind, I suspect.

Waugh: Quite unconscious. It wouldn’t occur to me to sit down and say ‘I will now write a book to reveal the horrors of the gangs in this district’ or something like that.

“I’m just trying to write books”. I tend to take that comment more or less at face value. I think that in Decline and Fall he set out his stall pretty well for the rest of his career, at least where his writing in a comic idiom is concerned. In other words he was just trying to make people laugh. No more, no less, and in Beckett’s phrase “make sense who may”.

Is there any other apparent motivation behind the book? I suspect his intent was broadly to satirise and to mock. Although it’s a very funny book, the humour is often described as black. I’d go further than that and say that it’s caustic to the point of being corrosive. Taking the mick out of almost everyone in the book, regardless of race, creed, colour or class, often makes for very funny writing. Ultimately it doesn’t really get you anywhere either. Hogarth would go down as a satirist with a moral purpose. Waugh by contrast has more in common with the Marx brothers. In other words, any one is fair game and damn the consequences.   Writers like Waugh in Decline and Fall mode, I suspect, don’t give a monkey’s about that, and just want to poke fun. Again something that stood out for me from “Face to Face”:

Interviewer: Looking at yourself, because I am sure you are a self-critical person, what do you feel is your worst fault?

Waugh: Irritability.

Interviewer: Are you a snob at all?

Waugh: I don’t think.

Interviewer: Irritability with your family, with strangers?

Waugh: Absolutely everything. Inanimate objects and people, animals, everything.

In other words this was a man who appeared to get wound up and stressed by the slightest thing. Fortunately for him, and for some of us, he was able to take that negative energy and make it into caustically funny prose.
In conclusion it’s worth pointing out that contrary to his denial, I think he was a snob, and a dreadful one at that if Decline and Fall be considered Exhibit A. However, it is precisely this contempt for the lowly, the snooty, the inadequate, the banal and the silly that invests Decline and Fall with its manic and angry energy.

Look on this list of works ye mighty, and despair…

I did something I rarely get the chance to do last Saturday, and got to browse among some second hand books (this was on one of the second hand book stalls near the NFT on London’s South bank). I came away with one book, a 1937 Penguin copy of Evelyn Waugh’s Decline and Fall. I paid an arm and a leg for it, but I’d been meaning to properly re-read this book for ages, and  I do like the old original Penguin books. At the risk of coming over all Obi Wan Kenobi on you all, these old Penguins seem to me to be reminders of a more civilised age. Certainly they were produced during a less corporate and more soulful one.

Anyway, a short review of Waugh’s book will be to follow, but in the meantime I couldn’t resist posting a PDF file of the book’s back cover (see link ‘New Doc’ below). It’s the 1937 list of Penguin titles in print. I can’t claim to have read more than a few of them, but the striking thing is just how many of the titles and authors I’ve NEVER heard of at all. An Ozymandias moment indeed.

If you’ve read any of the more obscure titles, or even own an original 30’s Penguin copy, drop me a line. I’d love to hear from you.

New Doc

Budd Schulberg: The Disenchanted.


The late Budd Schulberg:  “Don’t meet your heroes”goes the saying, but Schulberg was able to turn his encounter with Fitzgerald into a very good novel indeed.


Hollywood, late 1930’s. Shep Stearns, budding screenwriter, is overjoyed and overawed to be taken on by Milgrim Pictures at $2,000 a week, to work on a script with his idol, the novelist Manley Halliday. A bestselling author lauded (and loaded) to the gills in the 1920’s, by the late 30’s Halliday has long gone quiet, and is glad just to be taken on to earn some money to try and pay off his extensive bills and buy some time to work on a novel in progress. Aged 40 (but feeling twice as old), diabetic, and desperately trying to keep on the wagon, this is nothing like the dream job for him that it is for Shep. Told to write a fluffy romantic musical comedy set at an Ivy League University, everything starts to go wrong once they head East to Webster College, supposedly to gather background information. Things aren’t helped by having the producer Victor Milgrim along with them (his eye is on an honourary degree, which he thinks the presence of the great Halliday will help him obtain). To add to the trouble a camera unit is also in tow, there to shoot some pick up footage as per a rough script from Stearns and Halliday. Shep’s initial hero-worship soon turns to disbelief and finally disenchantment when Halliday falls off the wagon, the script doesn’t get written and things go terribly and tragically wrong.

You probably know Schulberg for “On the Waterfront” and “What Makes Sammy Run”.  Before he wrote that script, during his early Hollywood screenwriting days, he encountered F.Scott Fitzgerald, and Halliday is essentially a barely veiled portrait of the great writer in his latter years. This book is well worth seeking out if you admire Schulberg’s other work or are interested in what happened to Fitzgerald later on in his life and want a counterpoint to the novelist’s own writing about his ‘crack up’ phase and what came after. “The Disenchanted”, however, is well worth reading in its own right. The basic plot is very, very strong, and it’s a book you will want to read until the end since the main characters of Stearns and Halliday are well drawn, the kind most readers will want to get to know and understand. The relationship between the two men is very well described, and the way Shep’s early enchantment with his hero Halliday rapidly sours is convincingly handled.

That’s not to say I didn’t find the book without its faults. The start is rather drawn out, perhaps by design, since it depicts the slow, uncertain life of an aspiring screen writer, which seems to consist of a lot of hanging around waiting for a phone call (cue scenes of Shep Stearns staying up to all hours in a bar, waiting for a call from movie mogul Milgrim, a man who works odd hours and expects others to keep them too). Things really get going once Schulberg introduces Halliday and Milgrim. Halliday is clearly a very complex character, a man desperately trying to keep on the wagon in order to try and write another novel. As a depiction of a writer and an alcoholic it rings true. All that close up observation of Fitzgerald clearly helped, but it still needed Schulberg’s gifts to make Halliday a compelling character in his own right.

Later on, the escapades of the two writers on their fact-finding trip are similarly good, illustrating the changing relationship between the two. Shep began as idolising Halliday, but as mentioned this soon changes. Less engaging, I found, were the long flashbacks as Halliday went back over his rip-roaring 20’s glory years. Schulberg could have done with a better editor there and tried less hard to write like Henry James.

However, these are personal criticisms and other readers may think I’m too harsh. Ultimately, I think this book is a very strong study of two different ‘disenchanted’ characters: the once-great writer desperately trying to rekindle whatever made him great in the first place, and the young aspirant desperate to establish himself.

Given that the story is so strong, that it has cracking dialogue, and it’s a convincing study of two different characters, I think it’d make a great radio play. Any producers reading this then get in touch. I’d write it at the drop of a hat for you!